Chromosomal Abnormalities

Chromosomal abnormalities, alterations and aberrations are at the root of many inherited diseases and traits. Chromosomal abnormalities often give rise to birth defects and congenital conditions that may develop during an individual's lifetime. Examining the karyotype of chromosomes (karyotyping) in a sample of cells can allow detection of a chromosomal abnormality and counselling can then be offered to parents or […]

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What is Tuberous Sclerosis?

Tuberous sclerosis is a genetic disease that causes benign tumors to develop in different parts of the body. The name is derived from the Latin and Greek terms “tuber”, which means swelling and “skleros”, which means hard. The “tubers” were first discovered in the brains of patients and were recorded in 1880 by Désiré-Magloire Bourneville. It is not limited to […]

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What is Diabetic Nephropathy?

Diabetic nephropathy is the damage caused to the kidneys by diabetes mellitus. Around 50% of individuals with type 1 diabetes will develop nephropathy within 10 years of having the disease and around 20% of those with type 2 disease will develop it within 20 years. The persistently high blood sugar that occurs in diabetes can eventually cause damage to various […]

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Drugs Targeting the 5-HT System

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that binds to 5-HT receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Serotonin is an example of an inhibitory neurotransmitter that has general sedative effects on the brain and counteracts the effects of stimulants such as caffeine, for example. Adequate serotonin levels are needed to maintain a stable and balanced mood. Serotonin is […]

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Neuroblastoma Diagnosis

Neuroblastoma is a rare childhood cancer that originates in the immature nerve cells called neuroblasts that are present in the fetus or embryo. Usually the condition affects children under the age of five and can even affect a baby before it is born. Neuroblastoma is difficult to identify early on as at this stage, symptoms are vague and not unusual, […]

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What is an Eating Disorder?

Eating disorders are mental illnesses that cause serious disturbances in a person’s everyday diet. It can manifest as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. The condition may begin as just eating too little or too much but obsession with eating and food over takes over the life of a person leading to severe changes. In addition to […]

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Vitamin C Side Effects

Vitamin C is a water-soluble substance, and therefore does not accumulate in the body. This accounts for the absence of any data on vitamin C toxicity per se. Vitamin C in itself is of low toxicity, and has only minor adverse effects, such as diarrhea, nausea and other digestive disturbances. These upsets are due to the osmotic withdrawal of water […]

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History of Thalidomide

Skip to: What is Thalidomide? Thalidomide and Congenital Mutations Contemporary Uses of Thalidomide Thalidomide as a Treatment for Multiple Myeloma Thalidomide as a Treatment for Leprosy Thalidomide was first marketed to health professionals as a sedative. However, its use rapidly increased amongst pregnant women due to the drug’s ability to alleviate morning sickness. Soon after its rise in popularity, medical […]

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What is West Syndrome?

West syndrome or West's Syndrome is an uncommon to rare epileptic disorder in infants. West syndrome was named after the English doctor and surgeon William James West (1793-1848), who lived in Tonbridge. In 1841 he observed this type of epilepsy in his own son, James E West, who was approximately four months old at the time. He published his observations […]

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Causes of cleft lip and palate

Cleft lip or palate affects one in 700 babies in the United States and the United Kingdom. The reason for this defect lies in defects normal development of the face within the mother’s womb. The exact cause for this defect is often unknown. Cleft lip and palate and cultures In many cultures worldwide a cleft lip or palate is thought […]

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