Future Pandemics

Pandemics are infectious diseases that spread uncontrollably across populations, killing people over vast areas such as continents and even worldwide. Examples of recent pandemics include influenza and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some examples of potential pandemics in the future are described below. Viral hemorrhagic fevers – Fevers such as Rift Valley fever, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Bolivian hemorrhagic fever […]

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What is Acupuncture?

Acupuncture is an ancient practice of medicine. It originated over 2,500 years ago. The procedure of acupuncture has been used to treat and relieve symptoms of a wide range of diseases and conditions. Acupuncture has been used throughout the world unlike other forms of alternative and traditional therapies that have been confined to their national or cultural context. Acupuncture has […]

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What is Batten Disease?

Batten disease is an inherited neurological disease that is often fatal. It usually develops during childhood, between the ages of 5 and 10 years. The earliest symptoms range from being fairly obvious, with a child experiencing seizures or vision problems, through to subtle signs such as mild personality changes or clumsiness. Pathology and manifestations of Batten disease Batten disease is […]

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Chromosomal Abnormalities

Chromosomal abnormalities, alterations and aberrations are at the root of many inherited diseases and traits. Chromosomal abnormalities often give rise to birth defects and congenital conditions that may develop during an individual's lifetime. Examining the karyotype of chromosomes (karyotyping) in a sample of cells can allow detection of a chromosomal abnormality and counselling can then be offered to parents or […]

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What is Tuberous Sclerosis?

Tuberous sclerosis is a genetic disease that causes benign tumors to develop in different parts of the body. The name is derived from the Latin and Greek terms “tuber”, which means swelling and “skleros”, which means hard. The “tubers” were first discovered in the brains of patients and were recorded in 1880 by Désiré-Magloire Bourneville. It is not limited to […]

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What is Diabetic Nephropathy?

Diabetic nephropathy is the damage caused to the kidneys by diabetes mellitus. Around 50% of individuals with type 1 diabetes will develop nephropathy within 10 years of having the disease and around 20% of those with type 2 disease will develop it within 20 years. The persistently high blood sugar that occurs in diabetes can eventually cause damage to various […]

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Drugs Targeting the 5-HT System

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that binds to 5-HT receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Serotonin is an example of an inhibitory neurotransmitter that has general sedative effects on the brain and counteracts the effects of stimulants such as caffeine, for example. Adequate serotonin levels are needed to maintain a stable and balanced mood. Serotonin is […]

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Neuroblastoma Diagnosis

Neuroblastoma is a rare childhood cancer that originates in the immature nerve cells called neuroblasts that are present in the fetus or embryo. Usually the condition affects children under the age of five and can even affect a baby before it is born. Neuroblastoma is difficult to identify early on as at this stage, symptoms are vague and not unusual, […]

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What is an Eating Disorder?

Eating disorders are mental illnesses that cause serious disturbances in a person’s everyday diet. It can manifest as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. The condition may begin as just eating too little or too much but obsession with eating and food over takes over the life of a person leading to severe changes. In addition to […]

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Vitamin C Side Effects

Vitamin C is a water-soluble substance, and therefore does not accumulate in the body. This accounts for the absence of any data on vitamin C toxicity per se. Vitamin C in itself is of low toxicity, and has only minor adverse effects, such as diarrhea, nausea and other digestive disturbances. These upsets are due to the osmotic withdrawal of water […]

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